Kansenshogaku Zasshi
Online ISSN : 1884-569X
Print ISSN : 0387-5911
ISSN-L : 0387-5911
A New Exanthematous Disease in Newborn Infants Caused by Exotoxins Producing Staphylococcus aureus
Exotoxins Production of the Isolates and Serum Levels of Antitoxin Antibody in the Patients and Umbilical Cord Blood
Takashige OKADASeikyou FURUKAWAKeishi MIWARumiko SAKAIJunichi SUGIYAMA
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1999 Volume 73 Issue 9 Pages 893-900

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Abstract

Recently. in Japan newly neonatal exanthematous disease was elucidated to be caused by staphyloccocal superantigcnic exotoxins, mainly TSST-1.
We studied exotoxins producibility of 43 strains ofS. aureusisolated from neonates with exanthematous disease and examined antibody titers to staphylococcal enterotoxin A, B, C (SEA, SEB, SEC) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) of the patients and control (umbilical cord blood from term infants). The results were as follows
1. 34 of 43 strains (79%) isolated from the patients were SEC and TSST-1 producing MRSA, 5 strains (12%) were SEB, SEC, and TSST-1 producing MRSA, 1 strain (2%) was SEB and TSST-1 producing MRSA, 2 strains (12%) were SEB producing MSSA and did not produce TSST-1. The 1 strain (2%) was MSSA which produced SEC and TSST-1
2. 16 neonates with exanthematous disease, who showed typical clinical signs and laboratry findings of thrombocytopenia, with SEC and TSST-1 producing MRSA isolates had significantly low anti-TSST-1 antibody titers at onset (p<0.05), compared with the control (umbilical cord blood from term infants): TSST-1 appeared to the causative agent for the disease.
In two neonates with exanthematous disease, with SEB-and non-TSST-1--producing MSSA isolates, anti-SEB antibody titers were low at onset, so SEB appeared to the causative agent for the disease.
3. In Japan, low anti-TSST-1 antibody titers were found in the umbilical blood samples from about 70% of term infants; and low anti-SEB or anti-SEC antibody titers were found in samples from only about 10% of them, that is, a number of term infants had anti-SEB and anti-SEC antibodies.
The majority of S. aureus isolated from neonates with exanthematous disease were enterotoxinand TSST-1-producing MRSAs.
The results of our study by measuring antitoxin antibody titers suggested that SEB and SEC might not be pathogenically responsible, but TSST-1 was considered to be responsible for the majority of exanthematous disease.
Prevalence of TSST-1-producing MRSA in the neonatal and premature baby ward is the main cause for the high incidence of this disease in Japan, whereas the low antibody titer to TSST-1 in the mother, in comparison with the anti-enterotoxin antibody titers, may also be a predisposing factor.

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© The Japansese Association for Infectious Diseases
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