2000 年 2000 巻 13 号 p. 181-190
During the 1980s, the political participation system in French municipalities has developed. Most municipalities began a consultative system for foreign residents because they could not afford to manifest their political will. The creation of this new system was influenced by the French republican principle and its aversion to ethnically-based political organization. In other words, while the consultative system exists only for the foreign residents, the foreigners are not allowed to manifest ethnic interest. Their participation is based on republican principles. Since the beginning of 1990s, with the development of social diversification, the consultative system has been considered to be a system that could compensate dysfunction of the representative democracy based on republican principles.