1991 年 36 巻 3 号 p. 357-370
The recent progress of physical volcanology is reviewed focusing on studies on volcaniclastic flows and their deposits. Pyroclastic flows are high-particle-concentration, laminar currents with gas as a continuous phase. Pyroclastic surges are low-particle-concentration, turbulent currents with gas as a continuous phase. Lahars are flows of debris with liquid water as a continuous phase. Debris avalanches are catastrophic landslides in which a continuous phase is absent or plays no role for the motion. Owing to the upward gas flow, fluidization processes operate in pyroclastic flows. Flow behavior and resultant deposits are remarkably different depending the degree of fluidization, because it effectively reduces the yield strength of the flow. However, the distance traveled is slightly affected by the degree of fluidization. It is determined mainly by the mass incorporated at the source or by the velocity acquired when it wes initiated.