1998 年 43 巻 5 号 p. 373-383
The eruptive sequence of the An-ei eruption of Sakurajima volcano (1779-1782) is revealed by historical records. From the evening of November 7, 1779 (the 29th day of the 9th month in the 8th year of An-ei), Kagoshima and its environs were shaken frequently. At 11 a.m. of the next day, the water in the wells in the island boiled up, spouting at several points and the color of sea became purple. On the noon of the same day, minor white plumes rose up from the Minamidake summit crater. At about 2 p.m., plinian eruption oecurred at the southern upper slope of Minamidake, and several tens of minutes later, at the northeastern flank of Kitadake. The height of eruption column reached about 12000 meters. It is estimated that a pyroclastic flow was generated at 5 p.m. The plinian eruption climaxed from the evening of November 8, to the morning of next day, and later was followed by emission of lava flows. The activity of the southern craters ceased within a few days, but lava emission from northeastern craters lasted for a long period. On November 11, the lava flow from northeastern craters entered into the sea. Since then, submarine explosions occurred repeatedly off the northeastern coast, and it continued to January 18, 1782. Nine small islands produced by this submarine volcanic activity during a year. Submarine explosions caused small tsunamis on August 6 and 15, September 9, October 3 1, November 9, 1780 and April 11, 1781.