2018 年 84 巻 6 号 p. 242-250
This study examined the potential of “neighborhood organizations” (Machizukuri Kyogikai, which are similar to neighborhood councils in the US) to engage in community planning in the context of the aging and shrinking population of Japan. Since ca.2000, the number of neighborhood organizations has increased dramatically. The organizations have umbrella structures and are formalized by city ordinance or formal guidelines. Out of a total 1,741 municipalities in Japan, over 400 have established neighborhood organizations. For example, in Fukuyama City, Hiroshima, neighborhood organizations directly implement community programs, such as watching over isolated elderly people. This can be contrasted with neighborhood councils in the US, which do not take on any responsibility for community programs directly. The neighborhood organizations have the potential to become the “urban service delivery system” proposed by Vincent Ostrom, offering a solution for addressing problems related to aging and depopulating societies.