2013 年 2013 巻 174 号 p. 174_27-174_40
There is a growing consensus that a functioning state is the key to solving the challenges of fragile states. Problems of statehood and stateness provide a significant explanatory ground for state fragility. Yet little study has been done on the linkage between statebuilding and the problems of stateness and statehood. This article therefore reviews contemporary statebuilding from the perspective of stateness and statehood.
The difficulty of establishing an effective state authority is perceived in those states where there are stateness and/or statehood problems. This is largely because that the stateness and statehood problems are linked with the horizontal and vertical legitimacy, as suggested by Kalevi J. Holsti, which arises from the problematic relations among the communities and the weak relationships of the rule and the ruled within the territory. Therefore, the states that suffer from either or both stateness or/and statehood problems tend to have limited control and thus weak governance.
Contemporary international assistance for statebuilding for those states shows broadly two distinctive approaches: top-down and bottom-up. The top-down approach principally aims at establishing the Webarian form of state, where power is centralized with rational-legal bureaucracy. Under this approach, the actual international assistance is provided in order to strengthen and develop state institutions. On the other hand, the bottom-up approach emphasizes the importance of informal local authority that has more effectively provided security and services in reality. The two approaches are founded on different interpretation of legitimacy and authority of a state. While the top-down approach attempts to create a legitimate state that is, in the long run, expected to be an authority by gaining popular support, the bottom-up approach utilizes the existing authority in the given society, which usually has gained popular support and thus legitimacy.
Nevertheless, the international community faces critical challenges in implementing both approaches. These challenges are not necessarily linked with operational problems, rather, they are derived from the complex power relations in a state where there have been pre-existing authorities that interplay with the formal authority in the course of transforming a modern state. In such places, state’s capacity to efficiently provide goods and services is not the sole source of legitimacy. Legitimacy is also founded on indigenous social relations, such as patron-client relations and the elder system, which, at one time, challenge to the state authority while, at another time, utilize the state authority in order to attract aid and external support. Thus, contemporary statebuilding requires a broader understanding of legitimacy to reveal how the pre-existing authority and local social relations have been changed in connection with the state formation during and after the colonial period.