2016 年 2016 巻 183 号 p. 183_1-183_14
How does the rise of emerging states influence the international order? The historical exploration of the various aspects of this topic is the theme of this special issue.
The question of “the rise of emerging states and the international order” has its origin in the distinctive situation of Europe, characterized by the coexistence of a plurality of leading countries. The appearance of emerging states such as Germany and Italy and the growing nationalism destabilized the “Concert of Europe”—which Great Powers had created to establish a balance of power—leading to the outbreak of the First World War.
At the Versailles peace conference after the First World War, emerging states such as the United States and Japan appeared. The United States proposed the establishment of the League of Nations, whereas Japan made a proposal for the elimination of racial discrimination. After the end of the Second World War, the birth of many newly independent states from decolonization created a sense of urgency to reform the “international order.” The Bandung Conference was a symbol of it, and in the 1960s the developing countries raised the issue of the “North-South problem.” However, the oil crisis weakened the unity among developing countries. On the other hand, there are arguments that the rise of the Asian NIEs made the Soviet leadership recognize the inevitability of reforming the socialist system.
Japan and Germany (West Germany), which in the pre-war period represented the emerging states, were integrated into the United States-led postwar system. However, it is interesting to observe that in the 21st century Japan and Germany formed the “G4” and together with India and Brazil—the emerging states of this century—have been seeking to reform the United Nations Security Council, which is a cornerstone of the postwar system.
By examining this topic from different perspectives, this special issue sheds light on the historical aspects of the “the rise of emerging states and the international order.”