2016 年 2016 巻 185 号 p. 185_17-185_32
I would like to consider conflict resolution and peacebuilding in Southeast Asia and its boundary areas. Specifically, I would like to take up two cases regarding the conflicts of Southern Thailand and Mindanao in the Philippines. The Southern Thailand Conflict is an ongoing conflicts in these areas. The international society became aware of this conflict since the 2004 incidents. On the other hand, the Mindanao conflict reached a peace agreement in March 2014 between the Philippine government and Moro-Islamic Liberation Front; MILF is one of the armed forces against government.
First of all, in this paper I confirmed the historical background of both conflicts, from the Islamic kingdom before western colonialism and the nation-state building after independence. There are several common characteristics and different aspects between them. The Muslim population in both conflict areas is around 5%. Therefore, both governments sometimes enforced Muslims to obey their national identity but not ethnic identity from a economical and socio-political point of view. On the hand, the Islamic armed forces in both areas are more or less against the government policies based on assimilation of education, customs, and law. I analyzed them in different approaches and in several points.
I also considered the role of outside mediating actors. Especially, I focused on Islamic Malaysia as an ASEAN member and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation; (OIC). In addition, I paid attention to bad socio-economic aspects of both areas. I examined them from the indicators on Human Development Index; (HDI) using the Human Development Report in Thailand and the Human Development Report in the Philippines. I could observe the lowest levels of education, employment, and income of all provinces in Thai and the Philippines.
In conclusion, I would like to point out several factors for conflict resolutions and peacebuilding. Firstly, I suggest the role of third party mediators, especially Islamic actors like Malaysia, Indonesia, and Islamic organizations because Islamic or ethnic identity is very important for conflict parties in terms of reconciliation. Secondly, they seem to ask for special autonomy but not separation or independence of a nation-state like Aceh in Indonesia. Finally, people in both areas keep a peaceful daily life and they ask for true justice and equality on the political participation as well as socio-economic positions. Ultimately, both governments have to secure the human rights of people in conflict areas without marginalization and discrimination.