2019 年 2019 巻 195 号 p. 195_43-195_58
What kind of roles do private enterprises play in the process of diplomatic normalization? In general, the behavioral principle of private enterprises will be profit pursuit based on rational judgment rather than political values. If so, is it hard to imagine that the private enterprises will be deeply involved in diplomatic normalization? In response to such questions, this paper tried to point out possibility of private enterprises as non-state actors through analyzing the period of diplomatic normalization between Japan and Indonesia.
Economic ties between the two countries that celebrated the 60th anniversary of diplomatic normalization in 2018 are strong. However, looking back the history after World War II, in order to normalize diplomatic relations, these countries had to wait for the signing of the reparation agreement and economic cooperation agreement in 1958. What was the role of the private enterprises when the relationship of two countries was normalized?
In this paper, the author analyzed from the following viewpoint using diplomatic record of Japan, United States, and Australia. First, the author analyzed the factors that Japanese private enterprises were accepted in Indonesia, based on the relationship between decolonization in Indonesia and the cold war in Southeast Asia. Secondly, based on the case of North Sumatra oil development and Sulawesi nickel development, author analyzed the role of the private enterprises as a carrier of the real economy. Third, the author analyzed the interaction between the Japanese private enterprises and the government, focusing on the Nobusuke Kishi administration and the Hayato Ikeda administration.
As a result of these analyzes, the following conclusions were drawn in this paper. In the process of diplomatic normalization between Indonesia and Japan, the Japanese private enterprises generated opportunity and significance of diplomatic normalization for Japanese government. Unifying domestic stakeholder, Japanese private enterprises negotiated with Indonesian government before establishing official bilateral relationship, and the business development was realized with the side support of the Japanese government. These activities of private enterprises made the prototype of Japanese economic cooperation for Indonesia. And economic diplomacy was formed in the interaction of private enterprises and government.