International Relations
Online ISSN : 1883-9916
Print ISSN : 0454-2215
ISSN-L : 0454-2215
Security and Science & Technology
Science, Technology and International Relations
Masaru SAITO
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JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

1986 Volume 1986 Issue 83 Pages 12-21,L6

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Abstract

S & T (science & technology) has the dual use or the use diversion between welfare and war. Peace is in the field of politics, while R & D (research & development) is in the field of academism. S & T has a intimate relationship through the dual use or the use diversion. Especially, the high technology has a greater influence on not only the international politics but also international economy. Now, the international competitiveness depends mainly on more S & T than capital and cheap labour, and the military power depends also decisively upon S & T. The paradigm of advancement of S & T is linked with the paradigm of national security by the dual use or the use fiversion.
The contents are as follows, (1) relationship between both paradigms of the advancemnent of S & T and the security, (2) S & T competition related to security, (3) paradigm transformation and a new order, (4) role of Japan in new paradigms. The focus is on an analysis of the relationship between the advancement of S & T and the security of nation.
Though, the dimention is not the same between S & T and peace, it can be said that S & T has been a servant for the politics. The world security has been decisively affected by the strategies of both supreme nations, U. S. A. in the West, U. S. S. R. in the East, which based on the thesis of balance of power. The competition for the balance of power drives S & T into the R & D competition for the expansion of armaments. It is commonly believed that much welfare has been sacrificed for the competition. It has also become evident that we can not ensure the lasting peace of the world by depending upon only the power game between U. S. A. and U. S. S. R. or, without changing the existing world order of security. Now, we are requested to ensure it without the competition for the expansion of armaments.
In conclusion, we are necessary to meet following requests with due regard to the relationship between S & T and security. First, S & T should have her autonomy to the politics, and for the sake of this, scientists should have a free communication system among them, and a countervailing activity by strengthening the solidarity among them so as not to be compeled to take the cooperation for the military R & D. I proposed to make the peace declaration of world scientists and engineers in 1979. Second, it is to establish the world-wide complete communication network among member scientists. Because any war would not break out in the area where there is the complete network among related nations. Third, as the fields of security are expanding and diversifying with the progress of S & T, it is requested to work actively for such several fields of securities as energy, foods, natural resources, environmental conservation and so on, from the side of S & T. It is becomming important to give some appropriate securities against international disasters besides war. We should have a concerted attack to secure such securities with international needs by the cooperation among scientists in the world. Generally speaking, such world-wide security projects are requested to invest a large amount of/higher grade of R & D resources. In order to answer these requests, we are necessary to transform the existing international order based on the game of balance of power between both supreme systems of the West and the East to a new order, and to establish the ethics of scientists and engineers for peace.

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