1991 年 1991 巻 98 号 p. 79-96,L9
In December 1989 the President of the United States ordered his army to intervene in Panama for four reasons, one of which was to restore democracy in this small isthmian country.
The author describes the evolution of Panamanian political parties with special emphasis on Omar Torrijos' regime (1968-81), and analyzes their limits as political forces to take the initiative in carrying out national projects. Moreover, during the so-called Panama crisis (1987-89), they have been sharply divided into two antagonistic standpoints in respect to the figure of Manuel Antonio Noriega, commander in chief of the Panamanian Defense Force, but not to anygrand schemes on Panama's future. Finally, the author points out that even after the forced change brought about by the United States, political parties in Panama are not yet ready to accomplish effective democratization.