2000 年 2000 巻 123 号 p. 44-59,L9
A development agenda has been brought forward by the Bretton Woods institutions through the structural adjustment era. The concern for good governance is shared among donor communities as a key element which mediates between economic adjustment and political transition. It is believed to create a socio-political sphere in which the agenda will be operationalized. However, donors are skeptical for the performance of African states in pursuit of the agenda. Because they started under democratic constitutions and failed in keeping such institutional frameworks. They invited institutional decay, authoritarian rule, and the collapse of central authorities. African states were even more weakened through the structural adjustment process in the 1980s.
The political impacts of structural adjustment are once more examined here. Sustainability of reform is depending on policy changes which facilitate new actors to get political benefits in society, and political support must be employed to balance those who lost from such policy change. Alternation of political actors occurred in various level of the society, though aspects are different from place to place. After the end of Cold War, transnational communications and transactions were extended and strengthened further in the world. These contributed to building common understandings and values for the global society. Human rights and environment al issues are two special fields of advancement. They sometimes generate strong political leverages for popular demands. As an example the Nigerian popular movement in the oil-producing region is described in detail.
Cross-boarder activities are increasing in both the formal and informal sectors. In the African continent trans-nationalization of formal economic activities is still slow-paced. On the contrary informal transactions have been popular and continued for a long period. Political impacts of illegal activities are far more serious than expected. A built-in mechanism of corruption will lead to the criminalization of state agency itself. And such state system will nurture criminal organizations which commit transnational crimes like smuggling, drag-trafficking and money-laundering. Although positive development of transnational activities are welcomed, the negative side of trans-nationalization shall be watched with keen interest.