2007 年 2007 巻 150 号 p. 66-82,L10
This paper focuses on the development (and the process of divergence and convergence) of the principle of reciprocity in U. S. trade policy and GATT/WTO.
First I will examine the history and the historical background of the principle of reciprocity. Then I will analyze how the principle of reciprocity in U. S trade policy associates with the principle of reciprocity developed in the WTO through case study analysis.
The fundamental stance of reciprocity in trade relations shaped U. S. trade policy from the postwar period through the 1970s. However, in the 1980s the US policy took coercive measures to end the unfair trade conditions in over-seas markets and open markets to US exports. The reciprocity in this U. S. policy deviated from the principle of reciprocity of GATT (General agreement on Tariffs and Trade) which is based on mutual consent to conduct trade on the basis of Most-Favored-Nation principle and national treatment. Both the objective and means of reciprocity in US trade policy changed. Beginning with President Reagan in the 1980s, under Section 301 U. S. policy began to make unilateral demands for market opening using tariff retaliation action if necessary. This approach was fiercely criticized during the Uruguay-Round GATT negotiations.
The hypothesis of this thesis is that a fundamental principle of reciprocity in U. S. trade policy has returned to the principle of reciprocity of GATT/WTO after the establishment of World Trade Organization (WTO).
U. S. trade policy toward GATT/WTO was understood mainly through international law approach and multilateralism or international regime approach. To date, there has been no academic effort to understand the principle of reciprocity in the U. S. trade policy towards GATT/WTO with the perspective of emphasizing the relationship between international and domestic political process. I will discuss how preferences, policies, and institutions on the side of U. S. are related to GATT/WTO regime and evaluate the impact of the international system (legalization) upon domestic politics (institutions, coalitions, policies). Furthermore, I would like to discuss the theory of ‘The Second Image Reversed’ along with this theme.