1993 Volume 40 Issue 1 Pages 7-11
Cholelithiasis is extremely unusual in infants and children. Recently, some cases of cholelithiasis associated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) have been reported. A group of 400 children receiving TPN were evaluated prospectively for the presence of gallstones and sludge in this report. Eight children (2%) were determined by ultrasonography to have developed cholelithiasis. All of these patients had received large amounts of amino acids (≥1.8g/kg/day) and relatively low amounts of fat (≤1.7g/kg/day) with a high ratio of non-protein: kcal/ml (>0.8). It was concluded that the administration of large amounts of amino acids and a high ratio of non-protein: kcal/ml enhanced the risk for formation of gallstones and sludge. Conversely, these are prevented by the administration of appropriate amounts of fat.