THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
Online ISSN : 2187-5278
Print ISSN : 0387-3161
ISSN-L : 0387-3161
Special Issue: How did We Face Discrimination, Exclusion and Poverty in Educational Research?
The Creation of Special Schools for Children with Severe Motor and Intellectual Disabilities: School as a Place to Access Education and Life
Ryuhei KAWAI
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2018 Volume 85 Issue 4 Pages 433-445

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Abstract

 The purpose of this paper is to examine the meaning of school as a ‘place’ to access education and life for children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities, by considering the process of establishing school education for these children in the period during which the compulsory system of special schools for children with disabilities was created, in 1979.

 Children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities had been considered “uneducable” until then. Establishing special education for them required life-sustaining and health maintenance. It was necessary to create educational objectives and contents and recreate schools as institutions supporting their special educational needs, through connecting medical and welfare practices as well as life and child-rearing in the home. I considered this subject through a case study of a facility for children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities and a special school for pupils with physical handicaps in the period during which the compulsory system of schools for children with disabilities was created.

 Special schools for children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities were established as a ‘place’ for various needs for human life. As for education and pedagogy for children with disabilities postwar, the educational function of special schools was expanded by reconstructing the needs for human life with pedagogy, so as to create a school system including children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities without exception. From the viewpoint of inclusive education, the theoretical and practical issues of special pedagogy for children with disabilities include combining special educational needs with embedded educational needs for a place.

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