2004 年 47 巻 p. 88-108
This paper investigates the history of education of juvenile delinquents in Japan. The purpose of this study is to examine how Meiji era Japanese researched the system and ideas of education for juvenile delinquents in the western world. In particular I focus on Kosuke Tomeoka (1864-1934), the leader of the Japanese reform school, who carried out research in America and Europe, and on his return conveyed to the Japanese people what he had learned as well as founding one of his reform schools, 'Katei Gakko', Family School, in 1899. First, I analyze when and what kinds of institutions Tomeoka visited during his two trips abroad. Then I will discuss Tomeoka's conclusions regarding the different systems he encountered. In the nineteenth century, the internal organization of American reform schools gradually changed from the 'congregate' system that housed large numbers of children in the same place, to the 'cottage' system that dealt with smaller groups of around 30 boys. Tomeoka visited both types of reform schools and like progressive American reformers, judged the 'cottage' system to be the more effective. Moreover, he noticed that female staff, called matrons, played an important role in each cottage. He was also interested in 'the placing-out system', so-called fosterage, used in the western world. The idea of the cottage system was summed up in the following phrase, 'Christ's love is the strongest wall', a phrase attributed to Immanuel Wichern, who founded the Rauhe Haus in Germany. Tomeoka found the phrase in the book, Praying and Working by William Fleming Stevenson. When Tomeoka founded Katei Gakko, he adopted the 'cottage' system with matrons, and recorded that it was based on Wichern's Rauhe Haus. However, on several points he adapted and improved upon the western model, introducing his own ideas into his interpretation of the cottage system.