2018 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages S0076
Isotope analyses using mass spectrometers have been frequently utilized in the laboratories for the earth planetary science and other scientific and industrial fields. In order to conduct in-situ measurements of compositions and isotope ratios around planets and moons, mass spectrometers onboard spacecraft have also been developed. Ion and electron instruments on orbiters have provided much outputs for the space and planetary science since the early days and mass spectrometers on landers and rovers have recently performed isotope analyses on planetary bodies. We review spaceborne mass spectrometers, instrumentations, and observation results. Starting with spaceborne ion instruments to measure three distribution functions as well as mass for the space plasma physics, mass spectrometers have evolved to recent high-mass-resolution instruments for solar system exploration missions.