2001 Volume 42 Issue 5 Pages 790-793
Thermal cycle tests were performed for flip-chip joints with several lead-free solders in order to research the thermal fatigue behavior of the joints. A joint with Sn–3.5Ag solder was ruptured by solder cracking in the neighborhood of the joint interface. A joint with Sn–3.5Ag–0.76Cu solder was ruptured by interfacial cracking at the Al/Ni interface, and the lifetime before the rupture was shorter than that of the Sn–3.5Ag solder. Although the rupture modes were different, both joints showed a sufficient fatigue life to tolerate the alignment stress in the flip-chip bonding process. In the case of a joint with Sn–1.9Ag–0.52Cu–7.6Bi solder, an interfacial crack was observed in the joint immediately after reflow soldering. Bi segregation was found in the cracked interface. The cracked microstructure was similar to the structure of lifted-off joints often observed when soldering through-hole circuits with Bi-bearing solder. These thermal cycle test results with Sn–3.5Ag and Sn–3.5Ag–0.76Cu solders demonstrate that there is a possibility of using flip-chip joints with these solders for conventional electronic applications.