2007 Volume 48 Issue 6 Pages 1483-1491
An electroforming process for fabricating bulk nanocrystalline Ni-W alloys with minimizing W-concentration gradient and fluctuation is presented. The homogeneities of W-concentration in both micrometer scale and millimeter scale are guaranteed from the W-concentration profiles obtained by the linear analyses of the energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Mass balance analyses of the metallic ions in the electrolyte are performed by the combination of the experimental results of the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the exact solutions of the simultaneous differential equation. The homogeneous bulk nanocrystalline Ni-W alloy with the thickness above 2 mm is featured for the first time.