2009 Volume 50 Issue 7 Pages 1875-1880
With the recent emphasis on the importance of successfully joining materials, researchers have tried to join metals and ceramics with different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) by using the functionally graded material (FGM) method. This involves inserting interlayers with composition gradients that range from one material to the other, thereby minimizing the stress caused by differences in CTE values. In this study, the FGM that included 10 layers of Ni-Al2O3 with eight inter-layers was studied. Previous studies have focused on controlling the composition of inter-layers and optimizing the dispersion process to prevent cracks. Thermal stress was reduced by varying the weights of the inter-layers and increasing the green-body density by using several powder sizes. The powders were well-dispersed during fabrication by using simultaneous dispersion and dry processes followed by a cold isostatic press (CIP) and pressure-less sintering in an inert atmosphere. As a result, a crack-free Ni-Al2O3 FGM joint was obtained. The residual stress in each layer was calculated to predict cracks using ANSYS simulation and maximum principal stress criterion; experimental values matched simulation results. In addition, an oriented Vickers indentation test was used to assess the quality of the joint. Crack-paths were not deflected across the interface, indicating good bond strength between interfaces. Sample density was measured using the Archimedes method; the sintered joint was less dense than its theoretical density but was denser than the results obtained by using previous methods.