2009 Volume 50 Issue 7 Pages 1812-1819
Water model experiments have been carried out to understand the bubble formation from a multi-hole nozzle attached to an immersion top lance in the pretreatment process for sulfur. The number of holes is varied from one to four. Although desulfurization agents such as CaO particles are injected into the reactor together with carrier gas in the real process, only gas is injected, in this study, into a water bath through the holes in the horizontal direction. Three types of bubble formation patterns are observed depending on the gas flow rate: synchronized, partly-synchronized, and non-synchronized bubble formation patterns. The frequency of bubble formation at each nozzle is measured with a high-speed camera. An empirical equation is proposed for the frequency of bubble formation as a function of the number of holes, inner diameter of hole, and the physical properties of fluids.