2014 Volume 55 Issue 9 Pages 1391-1399
Grouting using calcium phosphate compound (CPC) has been used for countermeasure for liquefaction in geotechnical engineering applications and it is an economical and environmental friendly technique that develops to form calcium carbonate precipitation throughout the soil, leading to an increase in soil strength. In the paper, our aim was to improve strength by adding CPC with CaCO3 (commercially found) and scallop shell (Naturally found) powder and exceed a maximum UCS of 100 kPa after 28 days of curing, which is the strength required as a countermeasure against soil liquefaction during earthquake. For that, initially Toyoura sand test pieces were cemented by CPC solutions only and cured up to 56 days and carried out unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test. Moreover, Toyoura sand test pieces were cemented by CPCs with CaCO3 (CC) powder and CPCs with scallop shell powder and cured and these specimens also analyzed with UCS tests. The UCS of the sand test pieces cemented by CPC with scallop shell powder and CC powder was higher than that of the test pieces with no added powders. In addition, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted, including pH concentration, scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to observe the microscopic structure, density before and after curing etc. The results indicate that the density and the pH concentration of the sand test pieces cemented by CPC with scallop shell powder and CC powder were higher than that of the test pieces with no added powders.