2020 Volume 61 Issue 7 Pages 1177-1190
It is well known that severe plastic deformation (SPD) produces ultrafine-grained structures in bulk metallic materials. The SPD process becomes more versatile when it is performed under high pressure as high-pressure torsion (HPT) and high-pressure sliding (HPS). Not only the grain size is more refined but also the process is applicable to hard-to-deform materials such as intermetallics, semiconductors and ceramics, leading to enhancement of functional properties as well as structural properties. The major drawback is that the sample size is small so that the applicability is limited to a laboratory scale and it is an important subject to increase the sample dimensions. This paper presents an overview describing efforts devoted thus far to deal with this upscaling issue.