1991 年 1991 巻 7 号 p. 55-72
The present participle of OE (Old English) is different from that of PE(Present-Day English) in its syntactic behaviours as well as in its morphological form. In the noun-modifying constructions, -ende participles cannot take any object. That is, there is no “transitive” present participle functioning as noun-modifier whether prenominally or postnominally. Thus there were no counterparts to (1) and (2), which are both allowed in PE.
(i) a [chill] air [surrounding those who are down in the world]
(ii) an attracting gesture (= a gesture which attracts someone)
The question is how the lack of transitive -ende participle in the noun-modifying constructions should be explained.
We will propose that the affix -ing in PE inherits the θ-grid of the stem verb while the affix -ende in OE does not. We also assume that the inherited θ-grid percolates to the-ing participle. Then the lack of the transitive construction of noun-modifying-ende will be attributed to the θ-criterion, which prohibits unassigned θ-roles of the θ-grid.