2011 年 36 巻 6 号 p. 293-299
Chloride ions play many physiological roles, including regulation of cell volume, fluid secretion and acid.base balance. An efficient absorption of Cl- in the intestine is important to maintain the optimal levels of Cl- in the body. Three chloride absorptive pathways have been proposed : 1) a paracellular pathway, which is dependent on potential difference; 2) an electroneutral pathway involving parallel functioning of Na+/H+ exchange and Cl-/HCO3- exchange; 3) an HCO3- dependent Cl- absorptive pathway, which is not coupled to a parallel Na+/H+ exchange. Among these chloride absorptive mechanisms, the second electroneutral NaCl absorption is thought to be a predominant pathway. At least six Cl-/HCO3- exchangers (SLC4A1, SLC4A2, SLC4A3, SLC26A2, SLC26A3, SLC26A6) have been found in intestinal epithelial cells. However, the role of each exchanger and regulatory mechanisms in the intestine have not been well studied. This review in particular focuses on the role and regulation of SLC26A3 in the gastrointestinal tract.