2020 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 184-194
Purpose: Increased use of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) in medical imaging diagnosis requires determinate evaluation of diagnostic performance. We performed the fundamental investigation of diagnostic performance of DCNNs using the detection task of brain metastasis.
Methods: We retrospectively investigated AlexNet and GoogLeNet using 3117 positive and 37961 negative MRI images with and without metastasis regarding (1) diagnostic biases, (2) the optimal K number of K-fold cross validations (K-CVs), (3) the optimal positive versus negative image ratio, (4) the accuracy improvement curves, (5) the accuracy range prediction by the bootstrap method, and (6) metastatic lesion detection by regions with CNNs (R-CNNs).
Results: Respectively, AlexNet and GoogLeNet had (1) 50 ± 4.6% and 50 ± 4.9% of the maximal mean ± 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) measured with equal-sized negative versus negative image datasets and positive versus positive image datasets, (2) no less than 10 and 4 of K number in K-CVs fell within the respective maximum biases of 4.6% or 4.9%, (3) 74% of the highest accuracy with equal positive versus negative image ratio dataset and 91% of that with four times of negative-to-positive image ratio dataset, (4) the accuracy improvement curves increasing from 69% to 74% and 73% to 88% as positive versus negative pairs of the training images increased from 500 to 2495, (5) at least nine and six out of 10-CV result sets essential to predict the accuracy ranges by the bootstrap method, and (6) 50% and 45% of metastatic lesion detection accuracies by R-CNNs.
Conclusions: Our research presented methodological fundamentals to evaluate diagnostic features in the visual recognition of DCNNs. Our series will help to conduct the accuracy investigation of computer diagnosis in medical imaging.