2007 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 2_66-2_82
This article examines the different views of transboundary social construction of the European Union, most vocally defined as; (a) Europe as a market society, and (b) Fortress Europe. These two major aspects complement each other to build an individualist “free movement” society.
Under Europeanization, however, there remain (c) national political cultures that preserve non-market norms such as alcohol prohibition, ban on abortion and xenophobic administration, on the one hand, and (d) unequal citizenship of the immigrants and their subaltern cultural activities, on the other hand. Such residual but active sub-political spheres reflect multi-dimensional structuring of the political cultures in Europe, where individualist, hierarchist, egalitarian and fatalist cultures mutually contest, coexist and interact.
In urban Europe, metropolitan venues and institutions such as developed in Paris, Vienna, or Belgrad have provided habitats for both mainstream and subaltern arts/music. The latter, non-mainstream scenes represent enormous multicultural sub-politics, not only based on individualization (as Ulrich Beck observed), but also on mixed political cultures and even conscious isolation.