2003 年 13 巻 p. 35-49
Durkheim's concept of "collective force" was profoundly inspired by Proudhon's sociological theory. "Society is not a mere sum of individuals." This is a well-known phrase commonly attributed to Durkheim, however, we can find an almost similar idea in Proudhon's writings, especially in his System of Economical Contradictions (1846). Although Durkheim had been deeply studying on Proudhon's socialist idea for some time, he was very careful not to state his worship for Proudhon. It seems that he was too close to Proudhon to show his intimacy frankly. Georges Sorel stands on the other side. Sorel confessed that he was a disciple of Proudhon. In his eyes, Durkheim was a coward, or a sort of deserter. He thought this kind of intellectuals was difficult to deal with. Sometimes they could be the most malicious enemy against socialism. The apparent enmity between Sorel and Durkheim would be dissolved, if we observe their conceptual similitude about religious phenomenon. Durkheim's sociological concept of "collective effervescence" and Sorel's vital concept of "revolutionary myth", both praised people's irrational action based on their collective conscience. We can say that Durkheim and Sorel had the same root in proudhonien moral socialism.