2005 年 15 巻 p. 127-146
One feature of P. Bourdieu's sociological theory is the emphasis on epistemological reflection. According to Bourdieu, any sociologist has to examine the conditions and limits of his sociological methodologies or theories. This is one of the principles that determines whether the research qualifies as sociological science. Bourdieu refers to these principles, taken together, as the "theory of sociological knowledge." Bourdieu uses the methodologies and theories of many researchers in his work. When he does, he always uses the theory of sociological knowledge, which means he analyses their methodologies or theories at the epistemological level to test for epistemological agreement among different thinkers. Doing so allows Bourdieu, or any sociologist, to find common ground among authors who are considered to have very different sociological theories (such as M. Weber and E. Durkheim). We are also able to find agreement among authors whose studies are from different times and places. On this basis, Bourdieu adopts many of Weber's ideas in his work. For example, when Bourdieu uses Weber's "Ideal Types" in his work, he examines the conditions and limits of its validity. Bourdieu, therefore, builds on Weber's work, using Weber's methodologies in Le metier de sociologue and his theories in "Une interpretation de la theorie de la religion selon Max Weber". In this article, I argue that both Weber and Bourdieu accept that while members of society follow certain routines, they nevertheless act freely in their decision-making. The routines develop as unintended consequences of their decision-making. We can't reduce the routines to the subjective intentions of people. These points of agreement between Bourdieu and Weber have important meaning because they make it possible to unify their theories.