2015 Volume 55 Issue 10 Pages 775-781
Moyamoya disease is a chronic, occlusive cerebrovascular disease with unknown etiology characterized by steno-occlusive changes at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery, either bilaterally or unilaterally, and an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. Surgical revascularization such as extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass is the preferred procedure for moyamoya disease. Despite the favorable long-term outcome, cerebral infarction and hyperperfusion syndrome are potential complications of this procedure, which can lead to neurological deterioration in the acute stage. In light of the similar clinical presentations between perioperative ischemia and hyperperfusion, it is essential to attempt a prompt cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement in the acute stage after EC-IC bypass for moyamoya disease to differentiate these distinct pathologies, because the management of cerebral ischemia and hyperperfusion is contradictory to each other. Routine CBF analysis by single-photon emission computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging not only facilitated a safer perioperative management but also provided important information about dynamic pathology of the hemodynamic conversion in the acute stage after revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease. We represent the current status of CBF analysis during the perioperative period of revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease, and sought to discuss its significance and efficacy to avoid surgical complications.