2017 Volume 4 Issue 1 Pages 5-9
POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes) syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome elicited by plasma cell dyscrasia. Its clinical manifestations are multiple and stroke is not a recognized feature. A 44-year-old woman with a 3-month history of bilateral lower extremity sensorimotor disturbance was admitted to our hospital. Examinations revealed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, hypothyroidism, monoclonal gammopathy, pelvic plasmacytoma, and elevated serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. A diagnosis of POEMS was made. Her condition was improved by radiation therapy of her pelvic plasmacytoma and she continued to be seen on an outpatient basis. Five years after her first admission she was re-admitted with sudden-onset right hemiparesis. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a left intracranial hemorrhage and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and cerebral angiography showed occlusion of the proximal portion of the bilateral middle cerebral artery and narrowing of the bilateral internal carotid artery at the terminal portion; moyamoya vessels were seen. This is the first report of a patient whose intracranial hemorrhage was attributable to quasi-moyamoya disease associated with POEMS syndrome. We suggest that the POEMS syndrome be ruled out in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with atypical stroke, multivessel stenotic lesions (moyamoya vessels), and polyneuropathy.