2013 年 28 巻 1 号 p. 87-106
A number of tracking studies have revealed that inequities in schools' structures and practices perpetuate societal inequities by negatively affecting the quality of education experienced by certain groups of students. However, how the structure of the school system influences students' behavior has not been well studied. To investigate whether the tracking structure shapes high school students' self-learning hours, a multilevel ordinal regression analysis was carried out with a nationally representative Japanese dataset from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Findings of this study show that one's tracking location represented as school rank, school socioeconomic composition and curriculum tracking (general/vocational education) shape how long students study mathematics by themselves. Also, all student-level variables including students' socioeconomic status and academic disposition affect their practice of self-studying, while other variables are held constant. These results highlight the importance of understanding how one's effort is structured not only by students' background but also by the school system; how the formal education is organized facilitates socioeconomically advantaged students to study longer by themselves outside of any instructional lessons, intensifying the inequality of effort.