2020 Volume 18 Pages 1-18
An archaeological research has revealed that a group of magnificent palace buildings had been constructed in the center of the latter Naniwa-no-Miya Palace, and the avenues of the residential district of Naniwa-Kyo were laid out in a grid pattern based on Jobo 条坊 system. The findings led to an image of latter Naniwa-no-Miya Palace and Kyo area to have prospered with a large population. However, that impression was never well-founded, therefore, needed to be re-examined in the light of two phases; namely, the ordinary times; and special occasions, such as the Emperor’s visit to the area or the transfer of the capital. According to the ancient documents of Tairou 大粮 application forms and other analyses, in the ordinary times, individual government office did not hold its own building in the capital, but simply had their desks placed in the corner of a joint government complex or a joint premise. These facilities were typically maintained by one or two lower officials or Sichou仕丁 who were supervised by Zonin 雑任, such as Shibu 使部, low-ranking bureaucrats. Noblemen held their mansions in the residential Kyo district of the latter Naniwa-Kyo, indeed, but they never actually resided there.The residences were managed by the butlers. Those lower officials and butlers might have kept their own houses in the area and lived with their families. Nevertheless, the area was never densely inhabited. The atmosphere would, however, dramatically change on special occasions when the emperor was visiting the latter Naniwa-no-Miya Palace and when the capital was transferred. With many government officials present in the capital, the bureaucracy was functioning and noblemen, with their families, also came to reside in the area during the period.