Volume 24 (2011) Issue 1 Pages 47-55
In this paper we review the most important known sources of defects in nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The review encompasses the thermal, ultraviolet-curing and step-and-repeat variants of NIL, and addresses both systematic and random sources of residual layer thickness (RLT) variation, incomplete stamp cavity filling, and other defects. Approaches to simulating these NIL processes are surveyed. Strategies are analyzed for reducing RLT variation as well as the number and severity of defects, and opportunities for future innovations are highlighted.