2017 Volume 30 Issue 5 Pages 561-568
2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole (BT) is a widely used electron-accepting unit in organic electronics including organic solar cells (OSCs). As modifications of BT skeleton, two types of azole-fused BT units were designed and synthesized; thiazole-fused BT with an electron-withdrawing C=N bond and imidazole-fused BT with an electron-donating nitrogen atom as well as an electron-withdrawing C=N bond. Electrochemical measurements and theoretical calculations suggest that thiazole-fusion enhances the electron-accepting ability, whereas imidazole-fusion endows the BT skeleton with electron-donating ability while maintaining its electron-accepting ability. Moreover, in thiazole-fused BT units, the electronic structure could be further modulated by varying the oxidation state of the sulfur atom in methylthio group at the fused thiazole ring.