2016 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 213-234
A novel farming method, namely synecological farming (synecoculture in short), based on theory and observation of synecology has been proposed as total optimization of productivity, product quality, environmental load and adaptation capacity to climate change. Synecoculture is designed on a variety of environmental responses within ecological optimum in high-density mixed polyculture where various edible species were intentionally introduced. The whole methodology can be considered as anthropogenic augmentation of ecosystem functioning that promotes dynamic biodiversity–productivity relationship prevalent in natural ecosystems.
In this review we summarize the theoretical foundation to provide a systematic definition of synecoculture and clarify the relationship with existing farming methods. We also collate previously reported analyses of organic and mineral components in farm products, and outline their physiological characteristics and functions in response to culture environments.