2020 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 163-170
Apple is one of precious fruit crop grown in temperate zone. In the post genomic era, the analysis of gene functions in horticultural crops such as apple is required for agricultural utilization. For analysis of such crops, the protocol establishment of tissue culture and transformation is essential. Although transformation efficiency in family Rosaceae is generally very low, some cultivars of Malus species have high transformation ability. Apple cultivars are usually clonally propagated by grafting on rootstocks, which can affect fruit quality and maturity and scion productivity. Apple rootstock cultivar Japan Morioka 2 (JM2) was produced at the Division of Apple Research, Institute of Fruit and Tea Science, NARO, in Japan. JM2, which was developed for dwarfing scions and improving disease resistance, is easily propagated by hardwood cutting. Furthermore, JM2 can be stably transformed at a high efficiency, which is better than other JM series rootstocks derived from the same parent. Leaflets of cultured shoots of JM2 have been transformed using Agrobacterium (Rhizobium) with a transducing gene. In this article, the JM2 transformation protocol is introduced in detail. Various genes and promoters have been confirmed to function as expected, with the resultant transformants exhibiting specific staining and fluorescent signals, and modified floral organ shapes, precious blooming and other characteristics. JM2 is thus a useful rootstock material for the enhancement of genetic research on apple and its relatives.