Article ID: 16.0309a
Vesicle transport is crucial for various cellular functions and development of multicellular organisms. ARF-GAP is one of the key regulators of vesicle transport and is diverse family of proteins. Arabidopsis has 15 ARF-GAP proteins and four members are classified as ACAP type ARF-GAP proteins. Our previous study identified that VASCULAR NETWORK DEFECTIVE3 (VAN3), an ACAP ARF-GAP, played crucial roles in leaf vascular formation. However, it remains question how other members of plant ACAP ARF-GAPs function in cellular and developmental processes. To characterize these, we analyzed spatial expression pattern and subcellular localization of VAN3 and three other ACAPs, so called VAN3-like proteins (VALs). Expression pattern analysis revealed that they were expressed in distinctive developmental processes. Subcellular localization analysis in protoplast cells indicated that in contrast to VAN3, which localizes on trans-Golgi networks/early endosomes (TGNs/EEs), VAL1 and VAL2 were localized on ARA6-labelled endosomes, and VAL3 resided mainly in the cytoplasm. These results indicated that VAN3 and VALs are differently expressed in a tissue level and function in different intracellular compartments, in spite of their significant sequence similarities. These findings suggested functional divergence among plant ACAPs. Cellular localizations of all members of animal ACAP proteins are identical. Therefore our findings also suggested that plant evolved ACAP proteins in plant specific manner.