Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 is useful for common wheat because common wheat has allohexaploid nature and it can induce mutations simultaneously in three homoeologous genes. Although Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has advantages in genome editing, it still has low efficiency and requires relatively long time in wheat. Therefore, the use of guide RNAs (gRNAs) with efficient mutagenesis in vivo is one of the critical factors for producing genome-edited mutant lines in a short time. In this study, we targeted three genes in common wheat and established a rapid method for detection of mutations induced by the biolistic transient expression system. Biolistic transient expression of the gRNAs and Cas9 was achieved in immature wheat embryos. Mutations were detected a week later using PCR-RFLP and verified by the sequencing of genomic clones. We confirmed several types of mutations that occurred at different rates depending on the target sequences. Furthermore, frequencies of mutations tended to be higher at the targets that were edited at higher rates in the plants transformed by Agrobacterium. These results show that this method of rapid detection of edited mutations could be used for variety of applications, such as screening of target sequences or modified vectors for efficient CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in wheat.