2022 年 7 巻 論文ID: 20220044
The 20th and 21st centuries have witnessed a substantial increase in human life expectancy and in the number of men and women aged 60 years and older. Aging is associated with a large number of health conditions, including sarcopenia, which has been the subject of important research in the past 30 years. Sarcopenia is characterized by an age-related loss of muscle mass, weakness, and impaired physical performance. The condition can be diagnosed with a combination of measurements of these three elements. The precise definition of sarcopenia and the selection of optimal assessment methods have changed significantly in the past 20 years; nonetheless, the prevalence of sarcopenia in the general older population is in the range of 5–15%. Molecular and cellular events at the muscle cell level impact the size and quality of muscles (force adjusted for size). The active and passive mechanical properties of single muscle fibers are altered by changes in the structure and function of various cellular elements. Systemic factors such as inflammation, loss of hormonal influence, and deleterious lifestyle choices also contribute to sarcopenia. The consequences of sarcopenia include many adverse effects such as impairments in activities of daily living, falls, loss of independence, and increased mortality. Several rehabilitative interventions have been tested, and the safest and most effective is the use of progressive resistance exercise. An increase in dietary protein intake has synergistic effects. Future research should focus on a consensus definition of sarcopenia, identification of the best assessment methods, understanding of biological mechanisms, and testing of innovative interventions.