1999 Volume 27 Pages 45-56
This paper focuses on evaluating positive effects of snow-removal to reduce damages which are caused by snowfalls whose emergency indicates certain probability distribution. In this evaluation in monetary terms, CVM was used. Positive effects including the quality of residents' life by increasing accessablity. The questionnaire results on which the evaluation was based were analyzed by putting emphasis on the differences observed between WTP and WTA.
The CVM used to evaluate the questionnaire results is characterized by the following: Multi Level Dichotomous Choice for respondents to easily understand questions to answer, and the use of videos and models to eliminate respondents' bias.The results indicate that Sapporo citizens estimate that keeping the current snow-removal level is equivalent to an annual benefit of 26, 800 yen / household. Secondly, they reveal that if the snow-removal level is lowered, or in other words, when lowering the snow-removal level gives adverse effects on the environment, an annual equivalent option price of 50, 700 yen/household and an annual supplementary option price of 9, 400 yen/household emerge. The difference is approximately 5.4 times. However, if the environment is improved by snow removal, the calculated annual equivalent option price and annual supplementary option price are, 36, 200 yen/household and 6, 200 yen/household, respectively The difference is approximately 5.8 times.