2004 年 22 巻 2 号 p. 158-164
The memories of plans for the future must be represented in their order in time. In the present experiment, the possible effects of differences in retrieval style on the retrieval from memory of future plans were examined. Thirty-six undergraduates students participated and were asked to memorize 15 plans for one day. Each plan consisted of a 'time' and an 'action' phrase. The cued recall test had three different conditions: 'presentation', 'ascending', and 'descending'. In the 'presentation' condition each cue (the time of day) was presented in the same order as that of encoding (i.e., random for the time of day). In the 'ascending' condition each cue was presented according to its sequence in time. However, in the 'descending' condition each cue was presented in a reversed time sequence. The results showed that performance was best when plans were recalled in the 'ascending' condition. This suggests a 'looking-into-the-future' effect, i.e., a superiority of the retrieval of future plans according to their sequence in time.