2007 年 25 巻 2 号 p. 169-180
The present study examined the effects of modality and location expectancy on reaction times. Participants judged the azimuth (left or right) for a sequence of auditory and visual targets. In experiment A, the majority (75%) of the targets were presented in an expected modality and location. In experiment B, the majority of the targets were presented in an expected modality and at an unpredictable location. In experiment C, the majority of the targets were presented in an expected location and the modality of the target was unpredictable. The reaction times for the targets under these conditions were faster than when the targets were unexpected or without any expectancy. The results demonstrate that the costs and benefits in experiment A (two-target information) were larger than those in either experiment B or C. Moreover, the costs and benefits in experiment A were almost equal to the total of the costs and benefits in experiments B and C. The results also suggest that spatial attention and modality attention are separable and additive.