Human time perception is known to be distorted by adaptation to visual motion stimuli. Many studies have investigated time perception distortion and its underlying mechanisms, but their results have been inconsistent. This may be because they have used different adaptation durations, as it is known that time duration can affect visual processing levels. Previous studies have elucidated how time perception is distorted under adaptation conditions of a few seconds or much longer, but have not investigated this distortion under shorter durations. Therefore, we investigated how time is distorted and how time perception mechanisms are affected under short adaptation durations (e.g., <2 s). We found that a short duration produced a characteristic time distortion. In addition to orientation selectivity, we confirmed a transient effect on time perception distortion. These results suggest that visual processing concerning orientation selectivity contributes to time perception, and that transient components of the adaptation effect are useful for investigating the mechanisms of adaptation-based perceived time distortion.