Some studies have found that a neutral stimulus can become associated with caffeine or alcohol through classical conditioning. Further, several studies have shown that the taste, smell, and sight of caffeine or alcohol (e.g., decaffeinated coffee, non-alcoholic drinks) can acquire the properties of a conditioned stimulus. In human classical conditioning, a conditioning procedure (i.e., the pairing of a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus) and other factors (e.g., verbal information) are the sources of learning. In the present context, verbal information refers to whether participants are told that their drink is decaffeinated or non-alcoholic. The taste, smell, and sight of decaffeinated coffee (caffeine cue) or non-alcoholic beer (alcohol cue) can induce a conditioned response, even when participants know that the drink is decaffeinated or non-alcoholic. Therefore, in everyday life, decaffeinated coffee and non-alcoholic beer may change performance in coffee or alcohol drinkers.