Radiation Environment and Medicine
Online ISSN : 2432-163X
Print ISSN : 2423-9097
ISSN-L : 2423-9097
Cytogenetic Biodosimetry in Radiation Emergency Medicine: 4. Overview of Cytogenetic Biodosimetry
Ryo NakayamaYu AbeValerie Goh Swee TingKai TakebayashiMai Tran ThanhYohei FujishimaAkifumi NakataKentaro AriyoshiKosuke KasaiDonovan AndersonHiroyuki HanadaMitsuaki A. YoshidaKatsuhiro ItoTomisato Miura
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2022 Volume 11 Issue 2 Pages 91-103


Dose estimation is performed to provide physicians individual doses of patients exposed to radiation for medical treatment in radiation emergency medicine. Cytogenetic dose assessment plays an important role in radiation medicine because it directly analyzes the in vivo response of exposed patients and accurately estimates acute whole-body exposure. The endpoint used as a biological dosimeter in cytogenetic dose assessment fulfils three requirements: (1) specificity, (2) stability, and (3) dose-dependency. Dicentric chromosome (Dic) assay (DCA) is recognized as the gold standard in biodosimetry because Dic is an excellent endpoint that meets all three requirements of a biological dosimeter. In addition to DCA, premature chromosome condensation assay, cytokinesis block micronucleus assay, and translocation assay are used in cytogenetic dose assessment. As the endpoints of each assay are different, the most suitable method is selected according to the exposure scenario in terms of partial/whole-body exposure and applicable dose range. This article outlines the characteristics of cytogenetic dose assessment methods, reagents used for blood culture, and precautions for harvesting and spreading in chromosome preparation.

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© 2022 Hirosaki University Press.
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