2020 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 65-78
The rheological behavior of a material is strongly related to the energy dissipation, and the understanding and modeling of dissipation are important from the view point of rheology. To study rheological properties with some mesoscopic and macroscopic dynamics models, the modeling of dynamic equation which appropriately incorporates the dissipation is important. Although there are several methods to construct mesoscopic and macroscopic dynamic equations, such as the Onsager's method, their validity is not fully clear. In this work, we theoretically analyze the dissipation in a mesoscopic Langevin equation in detail, from the view point of stochastic energetics. We show that the dissipative heat flow from the heat bath to the system plays an important role in the mesoscopic dynamics. The dissipative heat flow is unchanged under the variable transform, and thus it is a covariant quantity. We show that we can construct the Langevin equation and also perform a coarse-graining based on the dissipative heat flow. We can derive the mobility tensor from the dissipative heat flow, and construct the Langevin equation by combining it with the free energy. Our method can be applied to various systems, such as the dumbbell model and the diffusion type equation for the density field, to give the coarse-grained dynamic equations for them.