1992 年 1992 巻 21 号 p. 3-29
For more than a century now discussion has continued about the old Javanese Buddhist temple, Borobudhur, with respect to such issues as its significance, relief and pantheon. In this paper the writer focuses on Borobudhur's pantheon, on the basis of the Sanskrit text of the Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha [Horiuchi, Hirohito. Shoe Kongochokyo no Kenkyu, Mikkyo Bunka Kenkyusho, 1983].
The Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha [hereafter referred to as the Tattvasamgraha] is one of the sutras of Esoteric Buddhism presumably composed in South India during the latter half of the 7th century. It was first translated into Chinese by Amoghavajra in 753 and in 1015 was newly translated into Chinese by Shin-huo [Taisho 18 No. 882]. This latter version corresponds to the Tibetian translation and the existing Sanskrit text, whereas Amoghavajra's version corresponds only to the first part of the Sanskrit text.
Up until now the pantheon of Borobudhur has been studied based on Vajra-dhatu Mandala iconography. This mandala has only Five Tathagatas (Buddhas); however, in Borobudhur there are 6 different types of Buddha statues. The 6th Buddha statue on the circular terrace has been thought to be either the image of Vajrasattva, Sakyamuni, or Vairocana.
For some years, the writer has been translating in Japanese and analyzing the Sang Hyang Kamahdyanikan (hereafter referred to as SHK) and the Sang Hyang Kamahayanan Mantranaya [Kats 1910]. Through this research she has noticed that “Mahaviarocana” in the Tattvasamgraha corresponds to “Diwarupa” in SHK, and further that the pantheon of Borobudhur is based on the description of the Nidana and the Assembly of Five Tathagatas in the Tattvasamgraha.
Mahavairocana in the Tattvasamgraha represents “the Absolute”. It pervades all space and includes every phenomena and reality. God Siva, Visnu, Brahma, Indra, Buddha, Vairocana etc. are all the embodiment of Mahavairocana. The sutra says that Mahavairocana dwells in the heart of Sarvatathagatas (all the Buddhas). The writer considers this passage to be embodied in the 72 Buddhas with dhamacakra-mudra in latticed stupas on the circular terrace of Borobudhur.
Mahavairocana in the Tattvasamgraha corresponds to Diwarupa in SHK. Vairocana means “sun”, “sunlight” or “shining one”, while Diwarupa means “(having a) body of light” [Zoetmulder 1982: 408]. In SHK “Diwarupa” is personified as the (Bhatara Hyang) Buddha, because text says, “Sira to sang hyang Diwarupa nga pinakawak Bhatara Hyang Buddha” (The Holy Diwarupa assumes the form of the Bhatara Hyang Buddha) [Kats 1910: 48 (note 9), LOr 14806 25b]. Diwarupa in old Java seems to be an interpretation of Mahavairocana in the Tattvasamgraha.
Next, concerning the “Assembly of Five Tathagatas”, the sutra says that at the top of Mt. Meru, tathagata Sakyamuni (Vajradhatu) took his seat to face all (four) directions, and each of the Four Tathagatas took their seats to face their own respective directions.
The writer considers this description to be embodied in the Five Tathagatas of the foot and first to fourth galleries of Borobudhur.
From the above mentioned excerpt from the Nidana, it is known that in the Tattvasamgraha, God Siva, Visnu, Brahma and even Buddha, Sarvatathagata, and Vairocana are all the embodiment or attributes of Mahavairocana. It is presumed that in old Java, before the arrival of the Tattvasamgraha in the 8th century, the idea of “the Absolute”, like Mahavairocana, had not yet been introduced, though the concept of Trimurti seems to have had been already introduced. The writer is of the opinion that the Sailendras were converted to Esoteric Buddhism because of the introduction of Mahavairocana, “the Absolute” that commands th