1966 年 32 巻 4 号 p. 443-458,3
Studying the history of trade in the early middle age, we encounter a difficulty, arising from the lack of written sources. We must, therefore, make use of archaeological, philological, numismatic data. Numismatical materials are particularly attractive for the students of the history of trade. But one coin-find never indicates anything positive, for there are accidental elements in it. So we have to grasp the whole of finds, which should make clear the tendency of distribution of currency. We have data as follows. (1) In the North Europe, the main coin-finds consist in Frankish denarii during 800-850, Arabian dirhems during 850-950, and Western coins again from the end of 10th century. (2) In Frankland, the hoards (treasures, Schatz-funde) belonging to the period until 850 are numerous and each of them consists of coins of various origins in time and space. But after that time, the number of hoards decrease and each hoard consists of coins of limited origins in time and space. (3) The coins minted during 950-1075, in the South and West of the Elbe and the Saale are excavated in the North and the East of the Elbe and the Saale much more than in the South and the West. How have we to explain these data?