1971 年 37 巻 3 号 p. 283-311,330-33
The Egyptian government went into bankruptcy by April, 1876, and it underwent a reorganization in order to redeem the loan. This long, difficult period can be divided into two periods: 1876 to 1881, and 1882 and afterwards. The first period is characterized by the decree of 1876, and the dual control prescribed by the decree, which insured the repayment of £89,271,000 to British and French creditors. It was, however, difficult to carry over the plan. It was reinforced by new debts (Domains Loan) and revised by the Law of Liquidation of 1880, but finally nullified by the nationalist movements led. by Colonel Arabi. The second period is characterized by the British occupation, which subpress the force under Colonel Arabi, and British control over the refunding as a result of the end of the dual control. The refundment plan was established by the London Convention of 1885, and reinforced by the guaranteed loan of 1885. It should be noticed that the British government tried to improve the irrigation system in order to develop agriculture and strengthen the financial ability of Egypt. The British government improved the Delta Barrages, which had been completed by the Egyptian government but abandoned afterwards as a result of poor construction. Delta Barrages were improved not for the benefit of Egypt but for the interests of her creditors, and put to use in 1891.